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The Founding Fathers and Federalism The delegates haggled over how to apportion representation in the legislature off and on for more than six weeks between May 30 and July Once confirmed, these "cabinet officers" serve at the pleasure of the president.

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The Constitution grants numerous powers to Congress. For example, while the legislative branch Congress has the power to create law, the executive branch under the president can veto any legislation—an act which, in turn, can be overridden by Congress. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. The th Congress — had 19 standing committees in the House and 17 in the Senate, plus 4 joint permanent committees with members from both houses overseeing the Library of Congress , printing, taxation, and the economy. Two presidents have been impeached, Andrew Johnson in and Bill Clinton in Certainly among the most important was the quality of leadership among those most committed to strengthening the American government. However troubled delegates from the other states may have been, their concern for harmony within the Convention was much stronger than their concern for the fate of those Africans whose lives and labor would be sacrificed by the continuation of the slave trade. Indeed, they enshrined the institution of slavery within their new Constitution. Congressional oversight Main article: Congressional oversight Congressional oversight is intended to prevent waste and fraud, protect civil liberties and individual rights, ensure executive compliance with the law, gather information for making laws and educating the public, and evaluate executive performance. A Latin term meaning "you shall have the body". Those ideas of the equality of mankind; that governments are based on the consent of the governed; that it is the fundamental obligation of a government to serve the needs of the people it governs; and, indeed, that it is the right of the people to abolish a government that does not serve those ends, has formed the basis of American government and society from that time forward. Beeman Richard R.

Creating an American President The debate among the delegates over the nature of the American presidency was more high- toned and more protracted than that over representation in the Congress. On May 28,the state delegations unanimously agreed to a proposal that would prove invaluable in allowing men like Madison, Wilson, and Morris to move their plan forward.

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For example, President Nixon refused, unsuccessfully, to surrender his subpoenaed White House tapes by claiming executive privilege. The vice president's duties and powers are established in the legislative branch of the federal government under Article 1, Section 3, Clauses 4 and 5 as the president of the Senate ; this means that he or she is the designated presiding officer of the Senate. The House of Representatives and Senate have separate roles in this process. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve. From this provision were created congressional committees , which do the work of drafting legislation and conducting congressional investigations into national matters. Moreover, the Articles of Confederation failed to provide for a chief executive capable of giving energy and focus to the new central government. Since the American Civil War , the powers of the federal government have generally expanded greatly, although there have been periods since that time of legislative branch dominance e. But the rule of secrecy gave to delegates the freedom to disagree, sometimes vehemently, on important issues, and to do so without the posturing and pandering to public opinion that so often marks political debate today. Once confirmed, these "cabinet officers" serve at the pleasure of the president. Beeman Richard R. It was impossible to discuss questions relating to the apportionment of representation without confronting the fact that the slave population of the South—whether conceived of as residents or property—would affect the calculations for representation. Although two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton , neither of them was removed following trial in the Senate. In addition, each house may name special, or select, committees to study specific problems.

Each state is allocated two senators regardless of its population. Designed to prevent illegal arrests and unlawful imprisonment. The person is not, however, exempt from being tried for the murder of another individual.

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The president, according to the Constitution, must "take care that the laws be faithfully executed", and "preserve, protect and defend the Constitution". Congressional procedures Article I, Section 2, paragraph 2 of the U.

In the case of Johnson, the Senate failed by one vote to obtain the necessary two-thirds vote required for conviction.

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Principles of American government (article)