Biological control as a pest management strategy
Biocontrol agents in agriculture
Between and , tens of millions of cactus moth eggs were distributed around Queensland with great success, and by , most areas of prickly pear had been destroyed. However, the efficacy of a classical biological will depend on the newly released parasitoids to successfully establish populations that can compete in the new environment. Musolin D. Chown S. Unfortunately, classical biological control does not always work. This results in the asynchrony of life cycles of pests and parasitoids or general reduction in populations of parasitoids required to effectively suppress pest populations. Adaptation of Drosophila to temperature extremes: Bringing together quantitative and molecular approaches.
CAB International, Wallingford. Last, augmentative biological control ABC is the periodic release of large numbers of mass-reared natural enemies with the aim of supplementing natural enemy populations or flooding i.
Thus, losses in suitable habitats will threaten the biodiversity and mere existence of organisms [ 78 ] including natural enemies or predators and parasitoids important for pest control in agro-ecosystems [ 75 ]. Kiritani K.
Types of biological control of plant diseases
This information should be helpful in making decisions regarding their use. Bryan, M. As a result, most inferences on the outcome of climate change are made from ecophysiological studies based on a single as opposed to multiple abiotic factors acting on different species. Basing on these limitations posed by low temperatures, a rise in winter temperatures may become beneficial to biologically-based pest management strategies for these specific parasitoid species, through improvements in their fecundity, development and longevity. Over the longer term, thermal tolerance may be altered through acclimation in the laboratory or acclimatization in the field, and generally is a response to changes in environmental mean temperatures with e. This is done despite increasing evidence of the differences in vulnerability or responses exhibited by some organisms when facing multiple as opposed to single stressors [ ]. Forman, R.
Although it has been documented that laboratory determined physiological traits e. Sandersonand Orius bugs J. Ensuring that the ecological requirements of the natural enemy are met in the cropping environment is the other major means of conserving natural enemies.
Modern Approaches in Augmentation of Natural Enemies Because most augmentation involves mass-production and periodic colonization of natural enemies, this type of biological control has lent itself to commercial development.
based on 106 review