The non-German ethnic groups broke away leaving Austria's current boundaries as German Austriawhich was proclaimed an independent republic. During the late twentieth century, however, the number of Austrians declaring membership in their ethnic groups dropped by large percentages.
Subsequently, Austria lost Silesia to Prussia. The University of Vienna, founded inis the oldest in German-speaking Europe. There were synagogues, prayer rooms, cemeteries and a Mikvah Jewish ritual bath. The extensive alpine regions are sparsely populated, and form a barrier to passage of peoples apart from strategic passes providing access to Italy.
No-fault divorce was legalized in the s, and divorce has increased, especially in urban areas. Because of the Alps, Austrian farms are small and isolated, making production relatively expensive.