Meta-ethnography synthesising qualitative studies
What is the aim of the updated meta-ethnography? As with quantitative reviews, there is no fixed time interval after which a meta-ethnography becomes out-of-date.
Noblit and Hare [ 3 ], ethnographers in education research, developed meta-ethnography in the s to deal with synthesising contradictory concepts from interpretive study accounts with unique contexts. First, we explore why and when a meta-ethnography or other qualitative synthesis should be updated; then, we identify how to do it, critiquing different methods of updating a meta-ethnography; and finally, we give a worked example of how we updated a meta-ethnography on experiences of head and neck cancer HNC.
However, the same findings might not be useful for current policy and practice if important new issues are omitted or they focus on outdated practices.
Meta-ethnography synthesising qualitative studies
As with quantitative reviews, there is no fixed time interval after which a meta-ethnography becomes out-of-date. In terms of timing, updating a poor quality meta-ethnography could be done as soon as a quality issue is identified, regardless of the existence of new relevant publications. Phase 7 Expressing the synthesis Communicating the synthesis to your audience in a suitable format [ 9 ]. Empirical research is required to compare the impact of different methods of translation and synthesis. However, there is very little guidance relating to whether, when and how to update a qualitative synthesis [ 17 ]. What was the aim of the original meta-ethnography and is it time-sensitive? Results Why and when to update a meta-ethnography Qualitative syntheses can become out-of-date because beliefs, experiences and social phenomena change over time, but there is no published guidance on why and when to update any type of qualitative synthesis [ 17 ]. If data are out-of-date, then an update might be needed. Important considerations include the rate at which new qualitative evidence is being published and the content of the published studies. These complex synthesis processes form the heart of the methodology, but were not described in detail by Noblit and Hare [ 9 ] whose seminal publication was not intended to be a step-by-step, procedural guide. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Attention should be paid to the assumptions, motivations and ideology behind a study. Received Jul 7; Accepted Feb
Received Jul 7; Accepted Feb The aim of this article is to provide up-to-date, in-depth guidance on conducting the complex analytic synthesis phases 4 to 6 of meta-ethnography through analysis of the latest methodological evidence.
Methods We report findings from a methodological systematic review conducted from to A benefit of conducting a refutational translation is that it allows reviewers to identify if the theories or ideologies underlying two or more studies differ [ 9 ].
Three main methods of updating the analysis and synthesis are examined.
Meta ethnography systematic review
Fourteen databases and five other online resources were searched. Expansive searches were also conducted resulting in inclusion of 57 publications on meta-ethnography conduct and reporting from a range of academic disciplines published from to However, there is little guidance on whether, when and how meta-ethnographies should be updated; Cochrane guidance on updating reviews of intervention effectiveness is unlikely to be fully appropriate. Unlike other qualitative synthesis approaches, in a meta-ethnography, the reviewer re-interprets the conceptual data, i. Attention should be paid to the assumptions, motivations and ideology behind a study. Conclusions This article makes a unique contribution to this evolving area of meta-ethnography methodology. Recommendations are made for the appropriate use of each method, and a worked example of updating a meta-ethnography is provided. Meta-ethnographies can refute or revise understanding of a phenomenon [ 10 ]; generate testable models, theories and hypotheses [ 11 ]; provide a historical overview of concepts or theories [ 10 ]; increase the relevance of findings from single qualitative studies for broader contexts [ 12 ]; identify directions for future research; reveal when no new conceptual development in a field has occurred [ 13 ]; inform and enhance the design of complex interventions; and enhance interpretation of systematic reviews of intervention effectiveness [ 14 ]. Contain s valuable strategies at a seldom-used level of analysis. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi The aim of this article is to provide up-to-date, in-depth guidance on conducting the complex analytic synthesis phases 4 to 6 of meta-ethnography through analysis of the latest methodological evidence. These include the purpose, quality and time-dependency of the original meta-ethnography and the volume and content of new, relevant qualitative studies. This is not literal translation but translation of meaning to generate explanation of a phenomenon. The translated concepts collectively are one level of synthesis.
What was the aim of the original meta-ethnography and is it time-sensitive? Recommendations are made for the appropriate use of each method, and a worked example of updating a meta-ethnography is provided. Using examples from numerous studies ranging from ethnographic work in educational settings to the Mead-Freeman controversy over Samoan youth, Meta-Ethnography offers useful procedural advice from both comparative and cumulative analyses of qualitative data.
Meta ethnography vs meta analysis
Noblit and Hare [ 9 ] stated that when deciding how studies relate reviewers should consider what the studies are about, the theoretical approach of studies, and the meaning of their concepts, themes or metaphors. Phase 1 Getting started This involves deciding the focus of the synthesis. Received Jul 7; Accepted Feb The aim of this article is to give guidance on the conduct of the complex analytical stages — phases 4 to 6 — of meta-ethnography through analysis of the latest methodological evidence identified from publications included in our systematic review. A benefit of conducting a refutational translation is that it allows reviewers to identify if the theories or ideologies underlying two or more studies differ [ 9 ]. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are outlined, relating to the context, purpose, process and output of the update and the nature of the new data available. The design of services may reflect outmoded attitudes and beliefs and thus offend people leading to reduced engagement with services, for example, cancer services in the past did not always directly disclose a cancer diagnosis to patients which would be viewed as unacceptable practice in the UK today. If the aim was tied to a specific time period in the past, the original findings may not be relevant to current practice. This is not literal translation but translation of meaning to generate explanation of a phenomenon. Noblit and Hare did not advise in detail how to do this. Our approach treats the refutation itself as part of the interpretation to be synthesized. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi
based on 31 review