The spread and division of the protestant reformation
In ScotlandJohn Knoxwho spent time in Geneva and was greatly influenced by John Calvin, led the establishment of Presbyterianismwhich made possible the eventual union of Scotland with England. Dunn, The Age of Religious Wars2nd ed.
Recognizing this event as a political threat, King Francis I instituted new measures for the repression of Huguenots French Reformed Protestantsincluding chambres ardentes, special courts for the prosecution of religious reformers.
The divisions within the churches of the Reformation also served to forward the Counter Reformation within the Roman Catholic Church, which rewon Poland, Hungary, most of Bohemia, and part of Germany.
Protestant reformation definition
John Knox, who led the Reformation in Scotland, spent some time in Switzerland at the feet of Calvin, learning his Reformation theology there. There was also a conflict of Lutheranism and Calvinism with the more radical and emotional groups, and the enthusiasm of preachers who interpreted Scripture in their own way met with a cool reception among the Calvinists. Called Anabaptists , they remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century. Start Your Free Trial Today The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. Currents of Calvinistic thought were, however, strong in England. Calvinism superseded Lutheranism in the Netherlands, where the religious revolt was coupled with revulsion at the policies of Charles V and his successor, Philip II of Spain. His influence was immediate and enormous. Zwingli agreed with Luther in the centrality of the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a different understanding of the Holy Communion. The concerns and ideas of these thinkers had a strong influence on the first Reformation activists, even though most of the Christian humanists alive at the beginning of the Reformation chose to stay within the Catholic Church. Town and church government remained distinct, but closely interconnected in the Genevan system. There is some evidence of anticlericalism , but the church at large enjoyed loyalty as it had before. In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdam , a great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher. Despite these policies, the numbers of Huguenots continued to grow so that roughly 10 percent of the general population and 40 percent of the French aristocracy adhered to the reformed religion by Dunn, XXX. The burning of Servetus was a sample of the internal strife within Protestantism itself.
What did the Reformation do? In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdama great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher.
Reformation definition history
The world of the late medieval Roman Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one. Read about the history of Protestantism. Probably the most important person in the English Reformation was William Tyndale, whose translation of the Bible into English was of cataclysmic importance. Reformation, Counterreformation and Catholic Reformation During the mid-sixteenth century, the fluidity and creative energy of the first wave of Reformation began to harden into new institutions, theological systems, and social identities. Facts Matter. Po-Chia Hsia. Sheltered by Friedrich, elector of Saxony, Luther translated the Bible into German and continued his output of vernacular pamphlets.
These instances must be seen as exceptions, however, no matter how much they were played up by polemicists. Bach, the baroque altarpieces of Pieter Paul Rubens and even the capitalism of Dutch Calvinist merchants.
Protestant reformation timeline
Martin Luther precipitated the Reformation with his critiques of both the practices and the theology of the Roman Catholic Church. In , Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes, establishing a limited but still unprecedented toleration of Protestants within officially-Catholic France. It was the original, official version of the Scottish Presbyterian Church. John Knox, who led the Reformation in Scotland, spent some time in Switzerland at the feet of Calvin, learning his Reformation theology there. There was also a conflict of Lutheranism and Calvinism with the more radical and emotional groups, and the enthusiasm of preachers who interpreted Scripture in their own way met with a cool reception among the Calvinists. The process was to work itself out slowly later in the English civil war , just as the fierce hatreds between Protestant and Protestant as well as between Catholic and Protestant were to be worked out later on the Continent. His influence was immediate and enormous. Enter Luther.
Reformation: Calvin and the Spread of Protestantism Enter your search terms: The message of the Reformation spread quickly throughout Europe except Russia. The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented.
The spread and division of the protestant reformation
His influence was immediate and enormous. In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdam , a great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher. From Wittenberg directly to England, or from Wittenberg to Geneva to England, in this roundabout route, the seeds of the Reformation that were planted in Germany sprouted into full bloom as they made their way into the English empire. His Institutes of the Christian Religion, published at Basel in , marked a new era in thought. In , he left England for the continent and studied for a period of time at Wittenberg. Visit Website Did you know? John Calvin was the most important figure in the second generation of the Reformation, and his interpretation of Christianity, known as Calvinism , deeply influenced many areas of Protestant thought. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, John R. Spain and Italy were to be the great centres of the Catholic Counter-Reformation , and Protestantism never gained a strong foothold there. Thousands of these Bibles were smuggled into England. Europe would never be the same. For the next forty years, France experienced brutal warfare, assassinations, persecution, riots, and bloody massacres finally calmed by the accession of King Henry IV r. Students from England who studied at Wittenberg also had a major impact in bringing the Reformation across the Channel to Great Britain.
This was a harbinger of things to come. Opponents of the ancient Trinitarian dogma made their appearance as well.
based on 118 review