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Behaviorally, cognitive control is studied by using tasks where there is an inherent conflict elicited by the stimuli or responses, for example, in Stroop Stroop, ; MacLeod, and flanker Eriksen and Eriksen, tasks. Advanced Search Abstract It is well accepted in the behavioral pricing literature that a consumer's perception of the attractiveness of a market price depends on a comparison of the market price to an internal reference price.

Consequently, at least two major theories of cognitive control relate ACC activity to the monitoring of conflict Carter et al.

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Of managerial relevance, these findings suggest that changes in context can bring about changes in the evoked price range and perceptions of the attractiveness of a market price. Participants were given sequences of single stimuli that came from a set of two classes. I conceive of the cognitive processing stream as such a communication system where the frontoparietal network serves as an integrative interface between input and response. The channel capacity is the upper bound on the amount of information that can be reliably transmitted per unit time with some arbitrarily small error probability. It is activated by stimulus novelty Berns et al. There are a number of schemes that have been proposed to minimize average uncertainty free energy. One involves an increase in cognitive control triggered by the context of the previous trial. Recall that based on Equation 2, low probability of occurrence is associated with a large surprise value. In this case, there is no change in context or response, which corresponds to a low entropy scenario. The sensory information in the MFT may not automatically accumulate over time, as in temporal integrator models see Kayser et al. Now assume that there is an additional condition where the probabilities for Go and No-Go trials are both 0. The ACC is the anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus, and is located around the genu and anterior third of the corpus callosum. The first assumption states that a business is a separate entity from its owners or creditors. However, if subjects cannot filter out the flanker, each stimulus in the incongruent condition indicates an additional possible response, and increases the uncertainty to 2 bits. Two earlier papers speak directly to uncertainty, predictability and surprise in the hippocampus Strange et al.

This is to distinguish it from the corresponding uncertainty over states of the world that is resolved through perceptual inference. I hypothesize that there is a central bottleneck that determines the capacity of cognitive control.

Theory account

Reinforcement Learning and Cognitive Control The information theory account is consistent with the account that ACC involves reinforcement learning and control in supporting the production of goal-directed action Alexander and Brown, The entropy rate of a given channel is the average information transmitted per unit time. VENs are most abundant in humans and are primarily found in clusters in layer Vb of the ACC, with highest densities in areas 24b and 24a. They are also found in a cytoarchitectonically distinct region located in the AI Von Economo and Koskinas, ; Nimchinsky et al. The frontoparietal network and the pivotal role of the ACC in information processing and response across domains. In other words, a high precision will make the most likely option much more likely relative to competing options thereby minimizing uncertainty. However, the structure of the tasks in terms of probabilities of specific events has not been systematically examined. This account treats the brain as an information-processing entity where cognitive control and its underlying brain networks play a pivotal role in dealing with conditions of uncertainty. In this framework, the ACC plays an important role in executive control voluntary, top-down of responses. On the trials when the task is switched, participants show increased RT and decreased accuracy. Conflict processing is usually accompanied by prolonged RT and increased error rate e. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. The roles of other regions in the frontoparietal network are also crucial to cognitive control. This also implies that dependent events will have lower entropy, and thus less uncertainty, than independent events. These results support the idea that ACC activation in human neuroimaging studies is associated with the surprise resulting from less frequent conditions e.

C Hemodynamic response as a function of uncertainty. Scand J Psychol. Lesions in the ACC did not produce selective changes in the conflict effect, but increased RT in both conflict and no-conflict conditions.

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However, consistent with Range Theory, we postulate that a consumer's assessment of the attractiveness of a market price may also depend on a comparison of the market price to the endpoints of the evoked price range.

Brain activation as a function of information uncertainty.

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Range Theory Account of Price Perception